In 1992, President George H.W. Bush joined 107 other heads of state at the Rio Earth Summit in Brazil to adopt a series of environmental agreements, including the UNFCCC framework, which is still in force today. The international treaty aims to prevent dangerous human intervention in the planet`s climate systems in the long term. The pact does not set limits on greenhouse gas emissions from individual countries and does not contain enforcement mechanisms, but establishes a framework for international negotiations on future agreements or protocols to set binding emissions targets. Participating countries meet annually at a Conference of the Parties (COP) to assess their progress and continue discussions on how best to combat climate change. Historic Paris Agreement. In the first truly global agreement on climate change mitigation, 195 countries approve a plan to prevent global temperatures from exceeding historic levels by more than 1.5 degrees Celsius. It will come into force 11 months later. Kyoto Protocol adopted. This is the world`s first agreement on reducing greenhouse gas emissions, which will come into force in 2005.
President Obama was able to formally enshrine the United States in the agreement through executive measures because he did not impose new legal obligations on the country. The United States already has a number of instruments on the books, under laws already passed by Congress to reduce carbon pollution. The country officially joined the agreement in September 2016, after submitting its request for participation. The Paris Agreement was only able to enter into force after the formal accession of at least 55 nations representing at least 55% of global emissions. This happened on October 5, 2016 and the agreement came into force 30 days later, on November 4, 2016. On June 1, 2017, President Trump announced his intention to withdraw the United States from the agreement. In response, other governments have strongly reaffirmed their commitment to the Agreement. U.S. cities, states and other non-state actors also reaffirmed their support for the agreement and promised to further intensify their climate efforts. The United States officially withdrew from the agreement on November 4, 2019; withdrawal came into effect on November 4, 2020.
President-elect Biden has promised to reinstate the Paris Agreement after taking office. While the enhanced transparency framework is universal and the global inventory is carried out every five years, the framework must provide “integrated flexibility” to distinguish the capabilities of developed and developing countries. In this context, the Paris Agreement contains provisions to improve the capacity-building framework.  The agreement recognizes the different circumstances of some countries and notes, in particular, that the technical review of experts for each country takes into account the specific capacity of that country to report.  The agreement also develops a capacity-building initiative for transparency to help developing countries put in place the necessary institutions and procedures to comply with the transparency framework.  Finally, in 2019, the first One Planet event was held in Paris, on the occasion of the reconstruction of the Green Climate Fund, to seek synergies, to develop innovative climate finance, to help communities and countries on the front lines of climate change.